The deep peroneal nerve (latin: nervus peroneus profundus) is one of the terminal branches of the common peroneal nerve. It is a mixed nerve that contains sensory and motor fibers.
The deep peroneal nerve arises near the neck of the fibula, then penetrates the peroneus longus, extensor digitorum longus and runs along the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane of the lower leg. Further, the deep peroneal nerve passes below the superior extensor retinaculum and inferior extensor retinaculum to the dorsal side of the foot. Then the deep peroneal nerve splits into terminal branches - two dorsal digital nerves that run to the first interdigital space.
On its course the deep peroneal nerve gives rise to muscular and articular branches.
The deep peroneal nerve provides sensory innervation to the first interdigital space and with its muscular branches innervate the anterior muscle group of the lower leg and the dorsal muscular group of the foot. The articular branches of the deep peroneal nerve supply the joints of the foot.