The middle cerebral artery (MCA, Latin: arteria cerebri media) is one of the terminal branches of the internal carotid artery. It supplies cortical and subcortical regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
From its origin, the middle cerebral artery continues into the lateral sulcus of the cerebrum. It ascends posteriorly on the insula and divides into branches that project to the lateral cerebral cortex.
The MCA has cortical and central branches. The cortical branches supply blood to the motor and somatosensory cortex, auditory area of the cerebral cortex, while the central branches are distributed to subcortical structures.
The cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery include the following:
The orbital branches of the middle cerebral artery supply the inferior frontal gyrus, as well as the lateral orbital surface of the frontal lobe.
The frontal branches supply the precentral, middle, and inferior frontal gyri.
The parietal branches supply the postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and lower part of the superior parietal lobule.
And the temporal branches of the middle cerebral artery are distributed to the lateral surface of the temporal lobe.
The central branches of the MCA include the lenticulostriate arteries that supply such subcortical structures as the lentiform complex, internal capsule, and caudate nucleus.