The lateral sacral arteries (also called set of lateral sacral arteries, latin: arteriae sacrales laterales) arise from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. There are usually two lateral sacral arteries: the superior lateral sacral artery and the inferior lateral sacral artery.
The superior lateral sacral artery runs medially into the first or second anterior sacral foramen, entering the sacral canal. Then it leaves the sacrum through the dorsal foramen of the sacrum.
The inferior lateral sacral artery runs obliquely ventral to the sacral anterior spinal rami, then it passes downward to the sympathetic trunk. The branches of the inferior lateral sacral artery enter the anterior sacral foramina and then continues the same way as the branches of the superior lateral sacral artery.
The lateral sacral arteries supply blood to the pelvic and perineal muscles, skin in the sacral region, as well as the sacral vertebrae and the contents of the sacral canal.